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In the retelling, this sounds like the script of a three-hanky movie. But Beig's writing is as hard-bitten and blunt as an Army manual. She wastes no words. Lives are condensed into compact sentences: ``In all her life, Helene had three good times.'' Wars and decades pass by between a single comma. There are no tear stains on these pages - and none are invited.



Certainly Beig's strategy is calculated to tweak German sensibilities, but her writing has a more universal appeal. In her hands, these simple stories swell to the scale of sagas. Better still is the glimpse at the process of fiction-making that this novel reveals. Maria Beig lived her first 30 years in the punishing psychic precinct of her characters. The risks and rewards of transforming that terrain into fiction are an integral, though silent, part of her work.

Under the rule of law, the domestic and international legal framework defines the basis and limits of every government's action. This study aspires to a universal approach and focuses only on international norms determining when a government can resort to military coercion.

Although these findings on the non-applicability of International Law seem well-founded, they must be refuted for two reasons. First, the suppression of a pandemic entails a universal approach and the development of universal standards. Secondly, the ancient wisdom of Cicero expressed in the maxim, inter arma, silent leges, warns that every use of military force in the homeland affects the Rule of Law, a value of international concern.

International Law has not set universal standards of military enforcement that would apply to a domestic constitutional and administrative framework in such circumstances. The issues of homeland military deployments are traditionally situated within the sovereign jurisdiction of states, and states enjoy broad discretion in the implementation of internationally recognized human rights. Moreover, the extant UN policies have not bridged this gap. The paralyzed SC, the World Health Organization's (WHO) declaration of the "public health emergency of international concern," and the General Assembly Resolutions that call for global solidarity (UN General Assembly, 2020) have not drawn red lines in this respect. Only the High Commissioner for Human Rights, Michelle Bachelet, criticized certain governments' unlimited powers and warned that this crisis is not a carte blanche that justifies the domestic negligence of internationally recognized human rights (Voanews, 2020). This statement indicates human rights law as a solution; this is thoroughly examined in the following discussion.

Worldwide, the benchmark for government prerogatives' limitation is the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR); it offers the most developed, universally accepted, and justiciable set of rules. Moreover, depending on the severity of exigencies, it distinguishes the derogation rules during a public emergency from the rules on human rights restrictions applicable to the routine regime of public order. The latter rules are prescribed in paragraph 2 of Article 29 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). 041b061a72


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